Monthly Archives: February 2018
Marketing has played a huge role in bringing to the forefront one of the most wonderful categories of fruit, the Mandarin. With the introduction of bagged Clementine Mandarins under various brands beginning in the mid-2000's, the Mandarin has quickly become recognized for what it is: the world’s finest fruit.
The Mandarin has been recognized for its superior qualities in China since the 3rd century AD. Its introduction into the United States would not occur until the 1840's when the Italian consul brought one to New Orleans, La. from Italy. From this point, it was introduced to the southern coastal states, Florida and finally to California.
The Mandarin, sometimes mistakenly called a Tangerine (which is a marketing name for one Mandarin variety), represents a category of mostly small, seedless, easy-to-peel, wonderfully flavored fruit. Mandarins have a distinct flavor all their own; it is a Mandarin flavor, which is not an orange. In many varieties, the acidity of the Mandarin is masked by the intense sweetness of the fruit mixed with the rich Mandarin flavor. It almost seems like a sub-acid fruit.
In the late 1800’s, Mandarin names like the ‘Willow Leaf’, the ‘King’ and the ‘Oneco’ were introduced into the U.S. The #1 variety of Mandarin for the next 100 years - the ‘Owari’ Satsuma - arrived around 1876.
The Owari proved the most adaptable of all Mandarin varieties and remains that today. It is the most cold-hardy of all mandarins, tolerating temperatures in the mid- to low-20s. It was immediately identified as being more resistant to disease problems common to other Citrus varieties.
Today, Owari remains the most popular variety of Mandarin planted in the home-garden. Seedless, easy to peel, most often the first to ripen, the Owari is hard to beat when you add its cold hardiness and let’s not forget the great flavor!
But in the last 20 years, many new Mandarin varieties have been introduced or have been rediscovered. These newer selections have tremendous qualities that make them standouts as superior fruits, aside from just being Mandarins.
The Clementine is a stand out as the primary variety used for the popular bagged Mandarins introduced the early 2000’s. There are many varieties of Clementine's that ripen at different times allowing commercial growers the opportunity to harvest over a longer period. For the home garden, the Algerian Clementine is seedless, easy to peel and harvests between October and January. Right off the tree, the Clementine is a very fine flavored fruit.
Then comes the powerhouses of this Mandarin Era, newer selections, fast becoming popular based only on their exceptional flavor. Varieties such as:
- Kishu Seedless Mandarin: a bite-size fruit that peels with ease, ripens in November, and has a wonderfully sweet, juicy flavor will keep you eating them like candy.
- Pixie Mandarin: ripens early to mid-January, the flavor of the Pixie Mandarin cannot be overstated. The long harvest period is amazing, beginning in January one can be picking wonderful flavored Pixie’s into June - if they last that long. It’s upright growth habit make it a perfect choice for planting in tight spaces, espalier or container planting.
- Gold Nugget Mandarin: this variety leads the pack in flavor, and extended harvest! In many taste tests it has proven to be one of the highest rated of all the Mandarin varieties. Coming ripe in mid-February, it is not uncommon to be picking fruit as late as September. Upright in growth habit makes it a great choice for containers, tight plantings, and espaliers.
- Page Tangelo: although technically a Tangelo, the Page Mandarin is a Minneola Tangelo crossed with a Clementine Mandarin. The Page needs a mention because of its outstandingly rich flavor. Ripening in December the Page has dependable crops of medium size, is an easy to peel, deep orange fruit. If the Mandarin has a unique flavor of citrus, the Page Mandarin is quite possibly the most unique of all.
There it is, some varieties to think about for planting in your home garden. The Era of the Mandarin is on. Don’t miss out on another crop of delightful Mandarins to enjoy in your garden.
No doubt about it, gardening is hot. People are discovering again why gardening is so gratifying. There is no denying the workplace is a busy and competitive environment, so it is nice to change gears when you get home. Many are re-discovering that gardening is extremely therapeutic - you can get outside, put your phone on the counter, check on your plants, and maybe give them a drink.
If you have never gardened before, watch out … you just might catch the bug.
A garden does not have to be a huge, rectangular plot of vegetables way out in the back corner of your yard. Today’s gardens are in pots, raised beds, mixed in with annuals, perennials and even within your landscape. Plants in an “edible landscape” - why not?
Before you get started, check how much sun exposure there is in the area that you would like to grow flowers, herbs, or vegetables. The amount of sun will dictate the plants that can be grown successfully. Start small and keep it simple.
Do you cook? Start with a simple herb pot on your patio or outside the front or back door of your home or apartment. Include Rosemary, Thyme, Basil, and Parsley, which are all sun-loving plants. Bigger pot? Add a sun-loving Begonia or some Nasturtiums for some color. Gardening tip? Mulch a container plant to help to maintain better moisture.
If you start with a container garden, make sure you pick a large, wide pot. The bigger volume of soil will prevent your plants from drying out too frequently, and allow them to get larger.
Maybe you are thinking about growing a few items to use other than herbs. Tomato plants love full sun and can easily be incorporated into an existing shrub border or perennial garden. Plant and stake the tomato plants or grow them on towers in the background of your favorite flowering plants. Tomato plants can be included in most locations with sun, but should only be planted in the same spot every third year or so.
The key is to plant only what you have time to care for. Maybe it is easier to just buy a few cucumbers or squash from your local farmers market and not waste a lot of space in your yard on items that you don’t use. Utilize vertical space for things that you can. Plant pole beans on a tower or homemade tripod. Pole beans produce beans for an extended time.
Raised beds offer a great way to add compost and other organic matter, increase drainage and can be placed in sunny areas. You will be shocked as to how much you can grow utilizing all the space. Plant radishes, lettuces and greens, and some green onions for an early crop. Then when harvested, plant some beans or eggplant or other warm season crops where you harvested early crops.
Some vegetables like lettuces, Swiss chard, kale, and parsley are all wildly ornamental and perfect for adding to the annual and perennial gardens. How about adding rhubarb to your perennial border? Beautiful. Have you seen Asparagus plants after you are done harvesting? They make an incredible soft and mellow green backdrop to your favorite perennials or annual flowers.
Do you have the bug yet? Who says that you need to have all that grass to mow? Expand your gardening skills and add a few more raised beds for flowers and food crops. Plant bigger crops in the ground to allow them to be most productive.
All plants love great soil. Rich, well drained soils mixed with compost and other organic materials will make your life a lot easier. Add water regularly as needed to prevent stress on your plants. Mulch over the roots is appreciated by all plants, whether in pots or in the ground.
Gardening is for everyone. Start small. Keep it simple. Even if you only grow a tray of microgreens, an herb pot on the patio, or an entire edible landscape … gardening is healthy and a great lifetime sport.
The Cherry traces its history as far back as 3300 BCE. Both the Sweet and the Sour Cherry have been a highly desired part of the human diet for thousands of years. Recently, the Sour Cherry has been fading in popularity in the home garden. But with the attention to healthy eating and growing your own, the Sour Cherry is due for a renaissance.
Sour Cherry varieties are some of the most adaptable of all cherry types. Growing well in zones 4-9 and newer varieties – like the Romeo and Juliet - are showing promise in zone 3-4. The Nanking Cherry has proven a good choice for zone 2. With this wide range of adaptability and the fruits seemingly unlimited uses, the Sour Cherry stands out as a first consideration for today’s home garden.
The versatile Sour cherry can be cooked, juiced, dried, frozen, eaten fresh or even distilled as the liquors Kirsch and Ratafia. They are included in any number of different preparations including baked goods, pies, preserves, main and side dishes or even for medicinal uses.
For example, the sour cherry is paired as a main dish with meat in Persian cuisine or used in the preparation of Sour Cherry Saffron Rice (Polow), a wonderful flavored side dish suited for royalty. The most popular variety for this is the red-fleshed English Morello cherry (shown left), though the North Star cherry with its dark red flesh would surly be a good consideration as well.
The fresh Sour Cherry pies of Michigan and Wisconsin are always in demand during cherry season. The popular Montmorency Cherry is always in demand for those pies.
The tremendous health value of Sour Cherries has been realized as far back as 3000 BCE. Only today are we able to define what that really means. In more recent studies, the term “super fruit” has become associated with the Sour Cherry. This is due to the high antioxidant values the Sour Cherry possesses. It has been shown in studies to have high anti-inflammatory benefits, improve memory, lower the risk of heart disease and colon cancer, and has even been cited as contributing to a good night’s sleep.
For centuries, the Sour Cherry has been used as a cough suppressant, prized for its sedative, expectorant, drying and cough control qualities. This is mostly the effect from grindings of the bark.
Sour Cherry trees are ideally suited to the modern landscape. A full size sweet cherry is often too big and needs pruning to fit into today’s smaller landscapes. The more popular sweet cherry varieties like Bing require a pollinizer, which means another tree. Sour Cherries are all self-fruitful, requiring no extra tree. In addition, the Sour Cherry is a natural dwarf and is often referred to as a bush Cherry because of its low growing canopy. Sour cherries can easily be maintained to below 8 feet with just a little summer pruning.
Their value as an edible ornamental shrub is tremendous: Prolific blooms in the spring followed by bright ornamental fruit, and a wonderful vase shaped dormant structure. This can readily be achieved with the early season fruiting of the Early Richmond variety of Sour Cherry, long a favorite of American and English gardeners.
The resurgence of the Sour Cherry’s role in the home garden is here. The facts are in: the Sour Cherry complements our good health and is a beautiful addition to our modern landscape.