This is very hard to do and may take hundreds of years. A faster, and much more common way is to graft the tree onto a rootstock that has been selected for its dwarfing characteristics. There are several different types of rootstock, and each works best with specific trees.
Semi-dwarf cherry trees often require much less care than full sized cherry trees. The rootstock chosen for the semi-dwarf cherry tree will often be much hardier than the original root system of the tree.
Also, the smaller stature of a semi-dwarf cherry tree will mean that less pruning needs to be done, and the tree will require less spraying.
Less tree to care for means less work to do.
Not every breed of cherry tree can be dwarfed at this time. The type of the semi-dwarf cherry tree depends on the variety grafted, while the size depends on the rootstock used.
Some rootstocks will semi-dwarf cherry trees more than others. It is important to select not only the breed of tree desired, but also the size.
A semi-dwarf cherry tree will grow better in a home garden than will a full sized cherry tree.